Next Oman

Oman, officially known as the Sultanate of Oman, is located on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia. It shares borders with the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest. To the southeast, Oman is bordered by the Arabian Sea, while the Gulf of Oman lies to the northeast. Its geographic coordinates range from approximately 16°N to 26°N latitude and 52°E to 59°E longitude.



Oman’s climate varies from region to region, with the coastal areas experiencing a hot desert climate and the interior regions characterized by a dry desert climate. The country also experiences a monsoon season, known as the Khareef, in the southern Dhofar region, bringing cooler temperatures and heavy rainfall from June to September.


Oman is home to a diverse range of wildlife, adapted to its arid desert and coastal environments. Some of the notable fauna include Arabian oryx, Arabian leopard, Arabian gazelle, and various species of birds, reptiles, and marine life along its extensive coastline.

Longest Rivers

Oman is predominantly arid, with intermittent wadis (dry riverbeds) instead of perennial rivers. The country’s wadis can experience flash floods during periods of heavy rainfall but are typically dry for most of the year.

Highest Mountains

The highest mountains in Oman are part of the Hajar Mountain range, which runs along the northeastern coast of the country. The tallest peaks include:

  1. Jabal Shams: With an elevation of approximately 3,004 meters (9,856 feet) above sea level, Jabal Shams is the highest peak in Oman, offering stunning views of the surrounding landscape.
  2. Jebel Akhdar: Translating to “Green Mountain,” Jebel Akhdar is renowned for its terraced orchards and agricultural terraces, nestled at an elevation of around 2,980 meters (9,777 feet).



Oman has a rich and ancient history, with evidence of human settlement dating back to the Stone Age. Prehistoric sites such as the UNESCO World Heritage-listed Bat archaeological complex in Al-Khutm and Al-Ayn provide insights into Oman’s early inhabitants and their lifestyles.

Ancient Civilizations

Oman’s strategic location along ancient trade routes, including the famous Incense Route, contributed to its importance in antiquity. The region was home to several ancient civilizations, including the Magan civilization, which flourished during the Bronze Age and engaged in trade with Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley.

Islamic Period

In the 7th century, Islam spread to Oman, and the region became part of the expanding Islamic caliphate. Oman played a significant role in the Islamic world as a center for trade and maritime activities, with its sailors exploring and trading as far as East Africa, India, and Southeast Asia.

Portuguese Occupation

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Oman fell under Portuguese control, leading to a period of colonial rule and conflict. The Portuguese established fortified settlements along the Omani coast but faced fierce resistance from Omani tribes and rulers, eventually leading to their expulsion from the region in the 17th century.

Omani Empire

In the 18th century, the Al Bu Said dynasty rose to power and established the Sultanate of Oman, which expanded its influence and territory across the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa, and parts of South Asia. Under the leadership of Sultan Said bin Sultan Al Said, Oman became a dominant maritime power in the Indian Ocean trade network.

Modern Oman

In the 20th century, Oman underwent significant political and social reforms under the leadership of Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al Said, who came to power in 1970. Sultan Qaboos implemented modernization initiatives, invested in infrastructure development, and promoted education and healthcare, transforming Oman into a prosperous and stable nation.



Oman has a population of approximately 5.1 million people, with the majority residing in urban areas along the coast and in the capital city of Muscat. The population has grown rapidly in recent decades, fueled by economic development and immigration.

Ethnicity and Language

The majority of Oman’s population are ethnic Arabs, primarily of Arab or Baloch descent. Arabic is the official language of Oman, with various dialects spoken across the country. English is also widely understood and used in business and education.


Islam is the predominant religion in Oman, with the majority of the population adhering to the Ibadi sect of Islam. Ibadi Islam is known for its moderate and tolerant interpretation of the faith, and Oman is known for its religious diversity and coexistence.

Education and Literacy

Education is highly valued in Oman, and the government has invested significantly in developing the country’s education system. Education is free and compulsory for Omani citizens up to the secondary level, and the literacy rate is estimated to be around 97%. Oman has made strides in improving access to education, particularly for girls and rural populations.

Administrative Divisions

Oman is divided into 11 governorates (muhafazah), each headed by a governor appointed by the Sultan. The governorates are further subdivided into wilayats (districts) and provinces. Here is a list of the administrative divisions along with their respective populations:

  1. Muscat Governorate – Population: 1.5 million
  2. Al Batinah North Governorate – Population: 800,000
  3. Al Batinah South Governorate – Population: 700,000
  4. Al Dakhiliyah Governorate – Population: 400,000
  5. Al Dhahirah Governorate – Population: 250,000
  6. Al Buraimi Governorate – Population: 150,000
  7. Al Wusta Governorate – Population: 100,000
  8. Dhofar Governorate – Population: 500,000
  9. Musandam Governorate – Population: 50,000

10 Largest Cities by Population

The largest cities in Oman by population include:

  1. Muscat – Population: 1.5 million
  2. Seeb – Population: 350,000
  3. Salalah – Population: 250,000
  4. Bawshar – Population: 200,000
  5. Sohar – Population: 200,000
  6. Sur – Population: 150,000
  7. Nizwa – Population: 100,000
  8. Ibri – Population: 80,000
  9. Rustaq – Population: 70,000
  10. Suhar – Population: 70,000



Oman has several international airports, including:

  1. Muscat International Airport (MCT) – Located in Muscat, it is the main international gateway to Oman and one of the busiest airports in the Middle East.
  2. Salalah International Airport (SLL) – located in Salalah, it serves the southern region of Oman and handles both domestic and international flights.


Oman does not have a railway network for passenger transportation. However, there are plans for the development of a national railway network as part of Oman’s infrastructure development initiatives.


Oman has a well-maintained network of highways and roads, connecting major cities and towns across the country. The total length of paved roads in Oman is approximately 16,000 kilometers.


Oman is strategically located along key maritime routes and has several major ports, including:

  1. Port Sultan Qaboos – Located in Muscat, it is Oman’s main commercial port and a major hub for maritime trade and shipping.
  2. Port of Salalah – located in Salalah, it is one of the largest ports in the Arabian Peninsula and a key transshipment hub in the region.

Country Facts

  • Population: 5.1 million
  • Capital: Muscat
  • Official Language: Arabic
  • Religion: Islam (predominantly Ibadi sect)
  • Ethnicity: Arab, Baloch
  • Currency: Omani Rial (OMR)
  • ISO Country Code: OM
  • International Calling Code: +968
  • Top-Level Domain: .om