General information about Moldova
The official name is the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova, Republic of Moldova). Located in the southeastern part of Europe. The area is 33.8 thousand km2, the population is 3.6 million people. (2002, 4.2 million people with data on the territory of the Left Bank of the Dniester River and the city of Bendery). The official language is Moldovan, written in Latin. The capital is Chisinau (662 thousand people, 2002). Public holiday – Independence Day on August 27 (since 1991). The monetary unit is the Moldovan leu.
Member of the UN (since 1992), CIS (since 1992), Black Sea Economic Cooperation (since 1992), OSCE (since 1993), Council of Europe (since 1995), WTO (since 2001), etc.
Geography of Moldova
Moldova is located between 26°40′ and 36°40′ East longitude and 45°28′ and 48°28′ North latitude. Landlocked, coastline 0.7 km from the mouth of the Danube. In the east, north and south it borders with Ukraine, in the west with Romania.
Landscape: in the center and in the north – the hilly steppe Codru, in the south – the plain (Budzhatskaya). The highest point in the country is the Balanesti hill (429 m). The main rivers (km): Prut (695), Dniester (630), Raut (286, length across the territory). Lakes (km2): Beleu (6.26), Byk (3.72), Drachele (2.65). Soils: chernozem prevails (80%), podzolic. Flora and fauna: flora is represented by approx. 1870 plant species. Forest cover has been preserved on almost 11% of the territory. There are protected areas, the largest reserve is Kodry. In the forests there are: beech, oak, maple, linden, ash, cherry, etc. The fauna is represented by 68 species of mammals (fox, wild boar, roe deer, badger, deer, hare, etc.) and 270 species of birds (gray duck, gray partridge, gray goose, quail, pheasant, etc.). Many species of fish live in rivers and lakes. Rare and endangered species of fauna (mink, pine marten, bustard, heron, etc.) are under state protection. Natural resources include lignites, gypsum, phosphorites. The main wealth is fertile arable land. According to bridgat, the climate is temperate continental, with mild winters (average January temperature -4°C) and warm summers (average July temperature +23.7°C).
Population of Moldova
Population density 125.7 people. per 1 km2.
The population (including the population of the Left Bank) in 1991-2002 decreased from 4357 thousand to 4251.7 thousand people. In Moldavia (without the Left Bank) in 2000–02 the population decreased from 3,635,000 to 3,618,000 people. In 2002, the rate of natural population growth per 1,000 inhabitants is negative -1.7 (+6 in 1991). Average life expectancy 67 years (2002). Number by age groups: 0-14 years old – 866 thousand people, 15-64 years old – 2437 thousand people, 65 years and older – 341 thousand people. (at the beginning of 2000, including residents of the Left Bank).
Economically active population by 2003 1579 thousand people. (43.5% of the inhabitants of Moldova), incl. 797 thousand women (50.5%). 765 thousand people worked in agriculture, forestry and fisheries. (53%). Every third resident is employed in agriculture (41.4%), in industry – 13.5%, in the service sector – 35.1%.
The largest share of demanded citizens with secondary specialized education – 28.2%, with secondary education – 21.3%, with incomplete secondary education – 18.8%, with higher education – 14.2%.
According to the pension reform (December 1998), the retirement age in 1999-2008 increases every year by 6 months. – for women from 55 to 60 years old, for men – from 60 to 65 years old. In 2003, this mechanism was temporarily (for 5 years) suspended, the retirement age for women reached 57 years, for men – 62 years.
According to the census (1989), there are 2,795 thousand Moldovans (64.5%), 600 thousand Ukrainians (13.8%), 562 thousand Russians (13%), Gagauz (3.5%), Bulgarians (2%), Jews (1.1%), other nationalities (2.1%). A new census is scheduled for April 2004.
Languages: Moldavian, Russian – the language of interethnic communication, Gagauz.
Religion is represented by Orthodoxy. The Orthodox Church covers 95% of Orthodox Christians. There are 18 denominations.